Lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LBTI) people are subjected to many human rights violations and face major stigmatisation in Cameroon. The Cameroon Constitution also does not have any SOGIESC provisions to protect LBTI people from discrimination.
Consensual same-sexual relations between adults are criminalised in Cameroon and punished with imprisonment through Article 347-1 of the Penal Code and the Law on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime 2010. The Code is actively enforced by the authorities.
Same-sex unions or marriages are not recognised by law. The rights of interesex and transgender people neither legally recognised no explicitly protected.
According to Cameroonian LGBT rights organizations, at least six LGBT people were in prison as of February 2021 on homosexuality charges, including transgender women who were arrested on the basis of gender expression. In 2020, at least six people were subjected to forced anal examinations, including children under age 18. In 2019, the Cameroonian LGBT rights organisations Humanity First and Alternatives Cameroun documented 27 cases of arbitrary detention on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, along with 200 cases of physical or sexual violence and 249 cases of extortion or blackmail.
The last submitted State party report was in 2006 and contained no information on LBTI constituencies.
The CEDAW Committee provided a SOGIESC-specific recommendation to Cameroon at the 57th Session. The Committee indicated concern about the lack of adequate protection and assistance for disadvantaged groups of women such as lesbian, bisexual and transgender women who are victims of discrimination and criminalisation. The Committee did not mention intersex people in the recommendation. The List of Issues does not have any LBTI-inclusive questions.
Other general recommendations by the Committee that can apply to LBTI people include:
(a) to ensure the implementation of the national strategy to prevent and combat violence against women;
(b) investigate and ensure the protection of victims of trafficking;
(c) to ensure access to SRHR services for all women and consider broadening the conditions under which abortion can be legally available;
(d) to intensify measures to reduce the high rate of HIV/AIDS amongst women and girls and provide a legal framework to protect the rights of women who are living with HIV/AIDS;
(e) to develop a gender indicator system to improve the collection of data disaggregated by sex and other relevant factors necessary to assess the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at mainstreaming gender equality and enhancing women’s enjoyment of their human rights.